These should be as simple as conditions allow. Stock items are used wherever possible, especially for piping held from above. To support piping from below, supports are usually made to suit from plates, pipes and pieces of structural steel. Following hardware is used to create supports.
- Rest Support: The weight of the piping is usually carried on supports made from structural steel, or steel and concrete.
Saddle: It is a welded attachment for pipe requiring insulation, and subject to longitudinal or rolling movement (resulting from temperature changes other than climatic). Saddles may be used with guides.
Pipe Support Brackets:
This arrangement can carry a load up to 1,000 kgs (2,200 lbs). If the structure is made of concrete, a steel plate is embedded in it. You can support a pipe 1 meter away, and its size is up to 125 mm (5") NB from the structure, with 150 mm (6") Channel, welded to the steel plate. If pipe size is more than that, 250 mm (10") Channel is welded to the steel plate. In case support such as U bolt, U clamp or shoe are there with this support, dimension A may be changed as required, case by case.
This arrangement can carry a load up to 1,500 kgs (3,300 lbs). If the structure is made of concrete, a steel plate is embedded in it. You can support a pipe 1 meter away, and its size is up to 125 mm (5") NB from the structure, with 150 mm (6") Channel, welded to the steel plate. If pipe size is more than that, 250 mm (10") Channel is welded to the steel plate. An additional channel is welded below the channel. In case support such as U bolt, U clamp or shoe are there with this support, dimension A may be changed as required, case by case.
Pipe Support Brackets: These are made of 100 x 100 x 8 (4" x 4" x 1/4") Angle. The type depends on the number and size of pipes to be supported. It is welded at the top to a steel structure.
Pipe Support Bracket from Pipe 3" through 24":
- Hanger Support : It is a device which suspends piping (usually a single line) from structural steel, concrete or wood. These are generally adjustable for height.
Pipe Hanger Support for Bare / Insulated pipe 1/2" through 24": A pipe clamp is tied around the pipe. It is supported from a beam. The height from the beam is adjusted by a turn buckle.
- Anchor Support: A rigid support which prevents transmission of movement (thermal, vibratory etc.) along piping. Construction may be from steel plate, brackets, flanges, rods, etc. Attachment of anchors to pipe should preferably encircle the pipe and be welded all around as this gives better distribution of stress in the pipe wall.
Anchor for Bare Pipe 2" through 24" (For Offsite)
- Dummy Leg Support: In this an extension piece (of pipe or rolled steel section) is welded to an elbow in order to support the line. This part rests or anchors on some steel member.
Dummy Pipe Support for Bare pipe 2" through 24": This is provided on elbow. It is made of pipe of same material. Pipe is covered at the end with a cap. A hole is drilled in cap. It is supported on structure.
Dummy Pipe Support for Insulated pipe 2" through 24": This is for insulated pipe. A shoe of same size is provided on dummy leg.
- Guide: This allows a pipe to move along its length. The pipe can not move sideways.
Low support Guide and Cross Guide for Bare and Insulated Pipe 2" through 36":
- Shoe: It is a piece of metal attached to the underside of a pipe, which rests on supporting steel. It is primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to movement. It permits insulation to be applied to pipe.
Pipe for Hot Insulated Alloy/SS Pipe 2" through 8" up to 400o C:
- Slide Plate: In this two slide plates of graphite, teflon or some special materials, fixed to steel plates, are fixed to the flat surface of the pipe support. These plates are faced for low friction able to withstand mechanical stress and temperature changes.
- Sway Brace: This is also called as sway arrestor. It is essentially a helical spring in a housing which is fitted between piping and a rigid structure. Its function is to buffer vibration and sway.
Maximum Spacing between Pipe Supports: The locations of piping supports are dependent upon four factors: pipe size, piping configuration, locations of Valves and fittings, and the structure available for support. Individual piping materials have independent considerations for span and placement of supports.
Pipe size relates to the maximum allowable span between pipe supports. Span is a function of the weight that the supports must carry. As pipe size increases, the weight of the pipe also increases. The amount of fluid which the pipe can carry increases as well, thereby increasing the weight per unit length of pipe.
The configuration of the piping system affects the location of pipe supports. Where practical, a support should be located adjacent to directional changes of piping. Otherwise, common practice is to design the length of piping between supports equal to, or less than, 75% of the maximum span length where changes in direction occur between supports. Refer to the appropriate piping material chapters for maximum span lengths.
Valves require independent support, as well as meters and other miscellaneous fittings. These items contribute concentrated loads to the piping system. Independent supports are provided at each side of the concentrated load.
Location, as well as selection, of pipe supports is dependent upon the available structure to which the support may be attached. The mounting point shall be able to accommodate the load from the support. Supports are not located where they will interfere with other design considerations. Some piping materials require that they are not supported in areas that will expose the piping material to excessive ambient temperatures. Also, piping is not rigidly anchored to surfaces that transmit vibrations. In this case, pipe supports isolate the piping system from vibration that could compromise the structural integrity of the system.
Spacing is a function of the size of the pipe, the fluid conveyed by piping system, the temperature of the fluid and the ambient temperature of the surrounding area. Determination of maximum allowable spacing, or span between supports, is based on the maximum amount that the pipeline may deflect due to load. Typically, a deflection of 2.5 mm is allowed, provided that the maximum pipe stress is limited to 1,500 psi or allowable design stress divided by a safety factor of 415, whichever is less. Some piping system manufacturers and support system manufacturers have information for their products that present recommended spans in tables or charts. These data are typically empirical and are based upon field experience.
Pipe Support Spans