Non Edible Oil Seeds for Indian Climatic Conditions
Oil Bearing Trees
|Bacaba palm||Oenocarpus bacaba|
|Borneo tallow||Shorea stenoptera|
|Butter nut||Caryocar nuciferurn|
|Butter tree||Madhuca longifolia|
|Carnauba wax palm||Copernicia cerifera|
|Cohune palm||Attalea cohune|
|Copaiba tree||Copaifera officinalis|
|Corn salad||Valerianella olitora|
|Crab wood||Carapa guineensis|
|Croton ||Croton tiglium|
|Earth almond||Cyperus esculentus|
|Eth. Mahagony||Trichilia emetica|
|Evening primrose||Oenothera biennis|
|Gorli seed||Oncoba echinata|
|Hunters nuts||Omphalea megacarpa|
|Indian almond||Terminalia catappa|
|Jaboty Palm||Erisma calcaratum|
|Japanese chestnut||Castanea crenata|
|Jauary Palm||Astrocaryum Jauari|
|Java almond||Canarium comune|
|Line seed||Linum usitatissimum|
|Manketti nut||Ricinodendron rautenenii|
|Meadow foam||Limnanthes alba|
|Murumuru palm||Astrocaryum murumura|
|Naras plant||Acanthosicyas horridus|
|Oiricuru palm||Syagrus coronata|
|Pachira nut tree||Bombacopsis glabra|
|Passion fruit||Passiflora edulis|
|Peach palm||Bactris gasipaees|
|Rose hip||Rosa pomifera|
|Rubber seed||Hevea brasiliensis|
|Sandal bead tree||Adenanthera pavonia|
|Scotch pine||Pinus silvestris|
|Seje palm||Jessenia bataua|
|Shea nut||Vitellaria paradoxa|
|Sour cherry||Prunus cesarus|
|Soy bean||Glycine max|
|Suari fat||Caryocar amygdaliforum|
|Sweet chest nut||Castanea sativa|
|Syrian scabious||Cephalaria syriaca|
|Tallow tree||Sapium sebiferum|
|Tar weed||Madia sativa|
|Tea-oil plant||Camellia oleifera|
|Turpentine tree||Pistacia terebinthus|
Ricinus Communis (Castor / Erand)
Castor was a neglected crop till recently as the oil and cake had few uses. The oil can be used as fuel and the cake as Bio-Fertilizer. Castor is crop, and you can get oil and income in 4 to 5 months.
The seeds of castor bean have oil content between 40 to 50%, and the castor bean plant can grow as perennial in tropical climates (Castor is already produced in Gujrat and Telangana). The plant can grow up to 3 m in height, and when seeds are fully ripe, they are often shot from their pods atop the plant. Castor bean can exhaust the soil quickly, and regular fertilization is needed for continuous production of seed. Under irrigation, yields from castor bean can exceed 2,000 kg per hectare of seed.
Varieties and Yield:
- Aruna castor is short in height. Aruna can give yield of 2.5 to 3 tons per hectare in 120 to 150 days.
- Girija varity can yield production of 3 to 3.75 tons per hectare in 150 to 180 days. In good soil, Girija can bear fruits a bit later. Hence you can get higher production. This verity can yield crop for a number of years.
- VI 9 varity can give yield of 2 to 2.5 tons per hectare in 110 to 120 days.
- Western 5 varity can give yield of 2 to 2.5 tons per hectare in rain fed land in 150 days.
- Western 6 or other hybrid verities are generally planted in irrigated lands. Western 6 is planted in square formation of 900 x 450 mm. 2 seeds are planted 30 to 50 mm deep. Western 6 can give yield of 3.75 to 5 tons per hectare in 120 to 150 days.
- Indo 9 varity can give yield of 3.5 to 5.5 tons per hectare in irrigated land in 120 to 150 days.
- For Rain fed land: 5 to 7.5 kgs of seeds are required per hectare.
- For irrigated land: 2.5 to 3.5 kgs of seeds is required per hectare.
Formation of Planting:
- If irrigated land is not good, Indo 9 is planted in square formation of 600 x 600 mm to 900 x 900 mm.
- If irrigated land is good, Indo 9 is planted in square formation of 600 x 600 mm to 1,500 x 1,500 mm.
- In rain fed land, Indo 9 is planted in square formation of 600 x 600 mm or 900 x 900 mm.
Pongamia Pinnata (Karanj)
Pongamia Pinnata is native of coastal India, the Pongamia tree has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes, fertilizer, shade, lubrication, minor construction, and illumination. Pongamia trees are deciduous, sub-evergreen trees that may grow up to 25 m tall, thriving in areas from sea level up to 1200 m. Pongamia trees prefer areas with a dry season lasting from 2 to 6 months.
Pongamia pinnata is one of the few nitrogen fixing trees, to produce seeds containing 30 to 40% oil. Pongamia Pinnata is often planted as an ornamental and shade tree but now-a-days Pongamia Pinnata is considered as alternative source for Bio-Diesel. This is commonly called Pongam or Karanj, in India.
Native to humid and subtropical environments, Pongamia thrives in areas having an annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 2500 mm. in its natural habitat, the maximum temperature ranges from 27 to 38oC and the minimum 1 to 16oC. Mature trees can withstand water logging and slight frost. This grows to elevations of 1200 meters, but in the Himalayan foot hills, Pongamia Pinnata is not found above 600 m.
Pongamia can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clay. Pongamia Pinnata does not grow well on dry sands. Pongamia Pinnata is highly tolerant of salinity. Pongamia Pinnata is common along waterways or sea shores, with its roots in fresh or salt water. Highest growth rates are observed on well drained soils with assured moisture. Natural reproduction is profuse by seed and common by root suckers.
Most of these are found along highways, and collection of these seeds is a big business.
Madhuca Indica (Mahua)
Madhuca Indica is a large deciduous tree, found in Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, West Bengal, Orissa, in South Indian forests and in Sri Lanka. The 2.5 to 5 cm long, orange brown pipe flesh berry has 1 to 4 shining seeds. Drying and decortication yields kernel, which is 70% of total weight. The yield of seeds varies from 5 to 200 kgs per tree, depending on size and age of tree. The tree starts bearing fruits after 10 years, and Madhuca Indica bears fruits / seeds up to 60 years. At this age, the yield is 10 times more than the yield at the age of 10 years. Recovery of kernel is a village level activity, where there is lack of proper facilities for drying and preservation. Kernel contains 50% oil. The quality of expelled oil, largely depends on storage conditions of kernel, which are susceptible to attacks by fungus and insects.
Azadirachta Indica (Neem)
The neem tree is an evergreen tree of the mahogany family that is native to India and Burma. Neem is found in tropical and subtropical climates, withstanding extremely dry conditions, but also tolerating sub-humid conditions. Neem trees are fast-growing and can grow up to 35 meters tall, and although evergreen, they will lose their leaves in times of severe drought. They have wide spreading branches creating a scenic, round to oval crown that sits upon a relatively short trunk. One tree can produce millions of flowers, and in one flowering cycle, a mature tree may produce many thousands of seeds. Seeds are small and round to oval in shape, with oil content ranging from 20-33%, depending on the variety.
The Neem has adapted to a wide range of climates. Neem thrives well in hot weather, where the maximum shade temperature is as high as 49oC and tolerates cold up to 0oC on altitudes up to 1500 m.
The Neem grows on almost all types of soils including clay, saline and alkaline soils, with pH up to 8.5, but does well on black cotton soil and deep well-drained soil with good sub-soil water. Neem tree needs little water and plenty of sunlight. The tree grows naturally in areas where the rainfall is in the range of 450 to 1200 mm. A Neem tree normally begins to bear fruit between 3 and 5 years and becomes fully productive in 10 years. A mature tree produce 30 to 50 kg. fruit every year. Neem tree has a productive life span of 150 to 200 years.
Simarouba Glauca, is an edible oil seed bearing tree, which is well suited for warm, humid, tropical regions. Its cultivation depends on rainfall distribution, water holding capacity of the soil and sub-soil moisture. Simarouba is suited for temperature range of 10 to 40oC. The tree is found in different regions of India. Simarouba can be grown on waste tracts of marginal, fallow lands of Southern India.
The tree is native to Central and North America. Simarouba can grow at elevations from sea level to 1,000 meters. Simarouba grows 40 to 50 feet tall and has a span of 25 to 30 feet. Simarouba is a tropical tree and rainfall should be at least 400 mm. The depth of the soil should be at least 1 meter. pH of soil should be from 5.5 to 8. Simarouba can grow in any type of soil which are unsuitable for cultivation of other crops. The average yield of Simarouba per hectare is: Seed 4 tons, Oil 2.6 tons, cake 1.4 tons. Simarouba bears yellow flowers, and oval, elongated, purple colored, fleshy fruits.
Rice Bran Oil
Rice Bran (Oryza Sativa Linn) is a byproduct, obtained from outer layers of the brown (husked) rice kernel during milling of rice to produce polished rice. Whole rice grain comprises (on dry basis) 70 to 72% endosperm, 20% hull, 7 to 8.5% bran, and 2 to 3% embryo. Rice bran comprises pericarp, tegmen (layer covering endosperm), aleurone and sub-aleurone. The rice bran contains 15 to 23% oil, which is one of the most nutritious oils, because of its favourable fatty acid composition. Lipase enzyme in rice bran adversely affects the storage quality and the subsequent industrial use of bran. The enzyme activates right after milling and the rate of free fatty acids formation is as high as 5 to 7% per day depending on environmental conditions. Free fatty acids can go up to 70% after storage of one month.
Moringa Oleifera (Ben-oil tree)
The Ben-oil tree is believed to be native to India, Arabia, and possibly even across Africa and the Caribbean. Ben-oil tree has been used by tropical societies for centuries as folk remedies, food, living fences, cleaning and disinfecting, lubrication, and cosmetics. The trees are short and slender, rarely growing above 10 meters in height, and the seeds are produced in long pods containing about 20 seeds within the pith. The Ben-oil tree is found in subtropical to tropical dry to moist climates, tolerating rainfall from 500 to 4,000 millimeters annually with temperatures ranging from 19 to 28oC. These trees are said to tolerate drought, sandy soils, bacteria, and fungi.
The seeds contain 35 to 40% nondrying oil, and the seed cake remaining after extraction is reported to be very high in crude protein (nearly 60%), making Ben-oil seed cake a desirable source of animal fodder.