BioDiesel

Mission

Indian Scene

Design Drawings

Book

Marketing

Storage / Handling

Standard

Tax Credit

Future Scene

Methanol

Lab test

Convert Plant

Small Plants

Lectures
BioDiesel Project Report

BioDiesel Process

Used Cooking Oil

Palm Stearin

Animal Tallow

Rice Bran Oil

Enzyme Process
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Satish Lele
lelebiodzl@gmail.com

e-BOOK on BIODIESELand JATROPHA CULTIVATION

Bought so far by more than 800 People.
INDEX
Chapter

No.
Description (Click on topic for Details) Page

No.
Biodiesel.pdf
1
Introduction
  • Product Description and Uses
  • Benefits of Biodiesel
  • Alternative Fuels Incentives and Laws
  • Economics of Small Scale Biodiesel Production
  • Installed Cost estimate in US$ for Continuous 3 million gallon per year biodiesel plant
1-7
2
Alternative Sources of Energy
  • Energy Scenario
  • Biodiesel as an option for Energy Security
  • Biodiesel requirement for blending
  • Benefits, Drawbacks and Uses of BioDiesel
  • Vegetable oil as fuel
  • Oil Vs. BioDiesel

  • Alcohol Industry in India
  • Manufacture of alcohol
  • Motor Fuel Grade Ethanol Production
  • Advantages of using of ethanol-blended fuels
  • Production Technologies: Options
  • Production of Alcohol from Cane Molasses
  • Production of Alcohol from Sweet Sorghum

  • Global Wind Power Industry
8-31
3
Feasibility of producing biodiesel as diesel substitute
  • Economics of Jatropha Biodiesel
  • BioFuel Policy
  • International Scene
32-34
4
Production of BioDiesel
  • Production of Vegetable oil
  • Derivatives of triglycerides (vegetable oils) as diesel fuels
  • Methods of conversion
  • Process variables in trans-esterification
  • Raw material and its quality for the production of biodiesel
  • Plants in operation / under construction
  • Available biodiesel production technologies
  • Country wise capacity of the biodiesel plants
  • Work done in India
  • 1,000 Liters per day Pilot Plant
  • How the trans-esterification process works
  • Other uses of BioDiesel
35-52
5
Blending, Storage and Handling
  • Blending of Esters and Diesel
  • Storage of BioDiesel
  • Handling of BioDiesel
53-55
6
BioDiesel : Past, Present and Future
56-58
7
Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel
  • Base Case Results
  • Life Cycle Energy Balance
  • Types of Life Cycle Energy Inputs
  • Defining Energy Efficiency
  • Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle Energy Consumption
  • Biodiesel Life Cycle Energy Demand
  • Ranking of Primary Energy Demand for the Stages of Biodiesel Production
  • Effect of Biodiesel on Life Cycle Energy Demands
  • Fossil Energy Requirements for the Biodiesel Life Cycle
  • CO2 Emissions, Accounting for Biomass-Derived Carbon
  • Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life Cycle (g/bhp-h)
  • Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel
  • Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle Emissions of CO2
  • Biodiesel Life Cycle Emissions of CO2
  • The Effect of Biodiesel on CO2 Emissions from Urban Users
  • Life Cycle Consumption of Primary Resources for Petroleum Diesel
  • The Effect of Biodiesel on Primary Resource Consumption
  • Life Cycle Emissions of Regulated and Non regulated Air Pollutants
  • Life Cycle Air Emissions from Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle
  • Life Cycle Emissions of Air Pollutants for Biodiesel
  • Comparison of Life Cycle Air Emissions from Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel
  • Life Cycle Emissions of CH4 for Petroleum Diesel, B20, and B100
  • Potential Effects of Biodiesel as a Diesel Substitute on Life Cycle Air Emissions
  • Tailpipe Emissions for Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel
  • Life Cycle Flows of Solid Waste
  • Sensitivity Studies
  • The Effect of an Enhanced Location for Biodiesel Production and Use
59-77
8
Analysis of Technologies with reference to Resources & Requirements of Developing Countries
  • Sources of Non-edible oil
  • Available biodiesel production technologies
  • BioDiesel Plant Suppliers
78-81
9
Engine Development & Modifications
  • Comparison of Indian & European Diesel specifications
  • Indian & European Vehicle Emission Norms Diesel Heavy Duty vehicles
  • Properties of different Methyl esters compared to diesel fuel
  • Test results for DDC series 50 engine at transient conditions
82-86
10
Environmental and Health Effects of Biodiesel
  • Biodiesel Emissions Compared to Conventional Diesel
  • Emission results of Biodiesel and blends tests on IDI diesel engine
  • Comparison of particulate composition Diesel Vs. Biodiesel
  • Toxicity & Safety Issues
  • Diesel Emissions and Cancer
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • NOx and Biodiesel
87-90
11
Research and Development Issues
  • Raw Material (Jatropha curcas seed and oil)
  • Production of improved feed stock / raw material
  • Selection of the crop for production of Biodiesel
  • Developing agro-technologies for different agro-climatic regions
  • Oil Quality
  • Production Technology
    • Bio Catalyst
    • Heterogeneous Catalyst
    • Utilization of by-products
    • Biodiesel Characterization
    • Compatibility with additives
    • Compatibility with elastomers
    • Stability of Bio diesel
    • Engine Performance
    • Toxicological Studies
    • Adulteration
    • Biodiesel Publications
91-97
12
Properties of Biodiesel
  • Density / Specific Gravity
  • Cetane Number
  • Viscosity
  • Distillation Characteristics
  • Flash Point
  • Cold Filter Plugging Point
  • Pour Point
  • Cloud Point
  • Aromatics
  • Stability
  • Oxidation, Thermal, Storage Stability
  • Iodine Number and Polyunsaturated methyl ester (C 18:3+)
  • Free and Total Glycerol
  • Mono-, Di-, and Triglycerides
  • Ester Content
  • Alkaline Matter (Na, K)
  • Total Contamination
  • Sulfur Content
  • Lubricity
  • Sulfated Ash
  • Acid number / Neutralization Number
  • Water Content
  • Phosphorous Content
  • Methanol / Ethanol Content
  • Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR)
98-103
13
Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Chemical Product
  • Composition / Information on Ingredients
  • Health Hazard Data
  • First Aid Measures
  • Fire Fighting Measures
  • Accidental Release Measures / Spill Clean-up Procedures
  • Handling and Storage
  • Exposure Control / Personal Protection
  • Physical and Chemical Properties
  • Stability and Reactivity
  • Transport Information
  • Other Information
  • Specifications and Quality Standards
  • Test Methods for Biodiesel
  • Proposed Biodiesel Specifications for India
  • Fuel Properties Considered
  • Engine Warranties and Biodiesel approval endorsements from engine manufacturers
  • Fuel Quality Test Procedures
  • Quality Standards & Specifications
  • Biodiesel Specifications and Testing Results
104-111
14
Marketing & Trade
  • Barriers for Introduction of Biodiesel
  • Economics
  • Present Availability of Non-edible oils
  • Marketing Frame Work for Biodiesel
  • Amount of Biodiesel to be blended in Diesel
  • Trade of Biodiesel
  • Availability of raw material of desired quality
  • Chemical Treatment to produce Biodiesel
  • Transportation of Biodiesel to selected locations for blending
  • Blending of Biodiesel into Diesel
  • Financial Support
112-114
15
Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Recommendations For Biodiesel
  • Micro missions Under National Mission
  • Financing for Demonstration Project
  • Assumptions
  • Financing for Phase II, Self sustaining Expansion of Biodiesel: Preparation of Project
  • External Funding
  • Institutional Arrangement For the National Mission & Demonstration Project
  • Legislative Aspects
115-118
16
Biodiesel Project Report
  • Product Description and Uses
  • Market Survey and Demand Supply Position
  • Manufacturing Process Description
  • BioDiesel Process in Detail
  • Quantity of Methanol
  • Power Requirement
  • Utilities Specifications
  • Market and Selling Arrangement
  • Production Capacity and Target
  • Cost of Project and Means of Finance
  • Cost of Plant and Machinery
  • Cost of Utilities
119-129
17
Glycerine
  • General
  • Burning of Glycerine
  • Separating Glycerine
  • Separating Free Fatty Acids
  • Purifying Glycerine
  • Paintbrush Cleaner
  • Glycerine Soap
  • Glop Soap
  • High-explosives
  • Heart Disease Drug
  • Love Potion
  • Safe Sweetener
  • Health Supplement
  • Other Uses
  • Disposal
  • Description of Purification Plant
  • Bleaching Equipment
  • Performance and Consumption Indexes
  • Combating Glycerin Glut
  • Beyond Economics
  • An Energy Source
  • Quality - Cause for Concern
  • Researchers Finding New Uses for Glycerine
130-138
18
Joint Ventures in India
  • Reasons for Forming a Joint Venture
  • Characteristics of Incorporated Joint Venture
  • Company Law Issues
  • Incorporation and Setting up a Joint Venture Company
  • Incorporation Process
  • Contractual Issues
  • Contents of a Joint Venture Agreement
  • Purpose, Objectives, Scope and Business of a Joint Venture
  • Capital Structure / Equity Participation
  • Management Control and Administration
  • Non-Competition / Conflict of Interest
  • Articles of Association
139-141
19
Raw Materials
  • Used Cooking Oil
  • Palm Stearin
  • Animal Tallow
  • Acid Oil
142-156
Jatropha.pdf
1
Cultivation of Jatropha Curcas
  • Introduction
  • Botanical Features, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds
  • Ecological Requirements
  • Oil as Raw material, Medicinal Plant, Raw Material for Dye, Soil Enrichment, Insecticide / Pesticide
  • Alternative to Diesel
  • The Chemical Analysis of Jatropha curcas oil
  • The Comparison of Properties of Jatropha curcas oil and Standard Specifications of Diesel oil
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Diesel Fuel and Jatropha curcas oil
  • Jatropha Curcas, Source of Biodiesel
  • Varieties of Jatropha
  • Names in Regional Languages
142-150
2
Oil Bearing Trees
  • Jatropha Curcas (Ratanjyot)
  • Ricinus Communis or Castor (Erand)
  • Pongamia Pinnata (Karanj)
  • Simarouba (Laxmitaru)
  • Azadirachta Indica (Neem)
  • Nahar
  • Karabi
  • Madhuca Indica (Mahua)
  • Rice Bran
  • Soya bean
  • Flax
  • Sunflower
  • Ground nut
  • Palm
  • Rape Seed
  • Candlenut
  • Avocado
  • Coconut
  • Moringa
  • Gorse
  • Jojoba
  • Chinese Tallow Tree
151-170
3
Nursery Raising
  • Germination and Planting
  • Saplings in Nursery
  • Generative Propagation (seeds)
  • Germination of Seed
  • Nursery Raising
  • Green House for Nursery
  • Sowing of seeds
  • Germplasm Management
  • Dormancy and Pretreatment
  • Nursery Designs and Drawings
171-182
4
Plantation Activities
  • Climatic Conditions
  • Soil
  • Pre Plantation Activities
  • Cost of Plantation
  • Employment Generation and Costs in Jatropha Plantation
  • Non-Forest Areas proposed for Jatropha curcas Plantation
  • Plantation
  • Maintenance of Soil
  • Maintenance of Plants
  • Fertilizers
  • Transplanting
  • Water Management
  • Drip Irrigation
  • Fertilizer
  • Pruning
  • Hoeing & Weeding
  • Pests & Diseases
  • Harvesting
  • Plucking of Fruits
  • Managing Large Plantations
  • Pests and Pest Control
  • Diseases
183-204
5
Seed Procurement & Oil Extraction Center
  • Unit cost of Seed Procurement and Expelling Center
  • Extraction of Oil
  • Oil Expeller Manufacturers
  • Tiny Oil Expeller Mill with a Capacity of 5 tons per day
  • % Oil Extraction of Different Oil Seeds
  • Special Facilities in Tiny Expeller
  • Basic Requirements
  • Special Machinery for Other Oils
  • Socio Economic Benefits
  • Expeller Oil Clarification
  • The Continuous Acid / Water De-gumming Process
  • Continuous Neutralization Plant
  • Continuous Bleaching Process
  • Deodorization
  • Fat Splitting
  • The Fatty Acid Distillation Process
  • Oil Refinery with capacity of 5 Tons per day
  • Additional Process for Palm Oil Refinery
  • Specifications of Refinery
  • Solvent Extraction Plant with Capacity of 200 Tons / 24 Hours
  • UN Number
205-215
6
Bio Gas / Bio Fertilizer
  • Purposes served by Bio Gas Plant
  • Composition of Biogas
  • Operation
  • Infrastructure Required
  • Construction of a Bio-gas Plant
  • Design of Bio-gas Plant
  • Location of the Bio-gas Plant

  • Introduction to Bio-Fertilizer
  • Types of Bio Fertilizers
  • Production Techniques
  • Methods of Production
  • Sizing of Plant
216-225
7
Business Model for Jatropha Curcas
  • Working with Franchisee
  • Product Development Center (PDC)
    1. Seed Inventories
    2. Seedling Development Programs
    3. Growing Media, Fertilizers and Composts
    4. Training Manuals for Planting and Cultivation
    5. Post Harvest Management and Seed Storage
    6. Seed Cake
    7. Micro Propagation
  • Biodiesel Plant
  • Jatropha Byproducts : Creating Additional Value
  • Building a Business in Feedstock and Biodiesel Manufacturing
  • India : Potential for Lead in Production of Biodiesel
  • Indian Vision
  • Market : Great Demand for Biodiesel
  • Feed stock : Huge Potential for Jatropha
  • National Biofuels Program : Our Contribution
  • Meeting Growing Global Demand for Non Edible Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel
  • The Birth of a Global Biodiesel Business
  • Putting Back What We Take Out
  • Biodiesel for Sustainable Transport
  • Jatropha Curcas : A Global Source of Renewable Fuel
  • Meeting Biodiesel Demand : Why Europe Can not Grow Enough Energy Crops
  • Jatropha Biodiesel : The Alternative Fuel
  • Greener Fuel
  • Global Biodiesel Market : Set for Growth
  • Biodiesel in Asia
  • Biodiesel in Africa
  • Biodiesel in the America
  • Biodiesel in Europe : Imports Will Drive Demand
226-233
8Addresses of Jatropha Research Institutes in India 234-236
9
Carbon Credit
  • Quick Introduction to Carbon Credits
  • Clean Development Mechanism
  • Carbon Credit Energy Balance
  • Life Cycle Energy Efficiency
  • Fossil Energy Ratio
  • Process Energy
  • Accounting for Biomass-derived Carbon
  • Highlights of the CDM Project on Bio-Diesel
  • Trading in Carbon Credits
  • MCX and Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Why no Agro-forestry Plantation CDM Proposal cleared so far?
  • Injustice to Farmers & Gain of Polluter Industries?
  • Forget the Forests, the future is Carbon Neutral
  • Outsourcing Forests to India?
  • Projects seeking to sell carbon credits racing against deadline
  • Questionnaire for Forestation / Reforestation (AR) projects under Clean Development (CDM)
  • Six countries in bid to form parallel to Kyoto
  • The best way to combat Global Warming is to encourage farmers to cultivate deep-rooted perennial grass species and crops that can lock vast amounts of carbon up in the soil.
  • Carbon credit brings in the moolah
237-249
10
BioDiesel from Algae
  • Algae Production Systems
  • Open Pond Systems for Mass Production of Micro algae
  • Resource Availability: Land, water and CO2
  • Why micro-algae technology?
  • Climate Change
  • Terrestrial versus Aquatic Biomass
  • High performance Algae Bio-reactors
  • Key benefits of Bio-reactor
  • Expression / Expeller Press
  • Hexane Solvent Method
  • Sample Calculation
  • Average income per year for each size photo-bioreactor installation
250-258
11
Investing in India
  • Principal Objectives of the Scheme
  • Area Coverage of the Scheme
  • Scope and Pattern of Financial Assistance
  • Eligibility for Promotional Grant / Subsidy
  • Submission of Proposals
  • Scrutiny of Proposals and Sanction for Promotional Grants / Subsidy
  • Release of Promotional Grant / Subsidy
  • Project Formulation Assistance
  • Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Other Conditions
  • NOVOD Board
259-282
Appendix1.pdf : News from Press about BioDiesel 283-455
Appendix2.pdf : News from Press about Jatropha 456-734
Jatropha Plantation Report in any Currency : Castor is planted as intercrop in the Jatropha Plantation and total plantation is considered as five year project.
Karanj Plantation Report in any Currency : Castor is planted as intercrop in the Karanj Plantation and total plantation is considered as five year project.
Simarouba Plantation Report in any Currency : Castor is planted as intercrop in the Simarouba Plantation and total plantation is considered as five year project.
Castor Farming Report in any Currency
For Details of These Reports

In these spread sheets, you have to first fill the Area of Plantation in Hectares (2.5 acres = 1 hectare). Then enter your currency. eg Rs. for Rupees, US$ for US Dollars, Euro, Pound, Peso, Rupiah or currency of your country. You then have to fill in Values or rates in that currency in all the boxes in yellow. Spreadsheet Automatically gives report with following topics.

  • Input Parameters for Project Report for Jatropha Plantation
  • Production of Jatropha Oil / Seed Cake and Target of Plantation
  • Expenditure on Land, Building, Vehicles and Fuel
  • Cost of Production and Profitability for 7 Years
  • Detailed Cost of Land and Building
  • Requirement of Plantation Materials for first 5 Years
  • Sales for first 7 Years
  • Cost of Utility Equipments
  • Computation of Working Capital for first 7 Years
  • Summary of Expenses
  • Annual Requirements of Various Items of Cost of Production
  • Packing Expenses
  • Repairs and Maintenance
  • Utilities Requirements
  • Administrative Expenses and Overheads
  • Selling Expenses and Overheads
  • Interest Calculation and Repayment Schedule
  • Manpower Requirement
    • Office Staff
    • Plantation
    • Tree Maintenance
    • Harvesting
    • Fertilizer Bagging
    • Engineering Services
    • Transport


  Price in India Price Outside India
Total Package Rs. 750 US$ 15
Jatropha.pdf Rs. 400 US$ 10
BioDiesel.pdf Rs. 250 US$ 5

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