Enzyme Process
Indian Scene
Storage / Handling
Tax Credit
Future Scene
Design Drawings
Small Plants
Animal Tallow
Used Cooking Oil
Contact Me
My Resume

Satish Lele

Reprocessing of Used Cooking Oil

We are starting an initiative "RUCO ASSOCIATION of INDIA" under which we are encouraging and advising, young people, (without any charges or commission), how to collect and process RUCO.

    Join us as Collector of Used cooking oil under RUCO ASSOCIATION of INDIA:
  1. Aries Enterprise, Jaipur, Mr. Sushil Vaishnav M: 99836 35111, arises.org@gmail.com. Collecting 100 tons per month.
  2. Aris Bioenengy P. Ltd, Mumbai, Mr. Indraneel Chattopadhyay, M: 98920 49589, indraneel@arisbioenergy.com. Collecting 100 tons per month.

Latest News:

  1. Oil Marketing Companies are going to buy BioDiesel at Rs. 51 per liter.
  2. BioDiesel will be produced in 100 plants all over country.

News spread like wildfire in print and social media. But nothing was mentioned how it will be achived. Currently oil marketing companies are ready to buy Biodiesel. Their conditions are

  1. Minimum supply should be 10 tons in tanker.
  2. It should be as per IS Standard, IS 15607 : 2005.
  3. It should be delivered to their depots.

Most of the 100 plants, that will be set up all over country, will find it difficult to fulfil these conditions. Quantity of UCO they will be able to procure will be another question. If BioDiesel is bought at Rs. 51 per liter, prices of UCO, Acid oil, Palm Stearin, Animal Tallow will shoot beyond Rs. 41 per liter. It will benefit the parties collecting oil, and BioDiesel Manufacturers may not afford the price. The raw material price rise will also put small scale cottage soap industry to shut its shops (Production of soap in India is 800,000 tons per year).
To produce BioDiesel as per Indian Standard, IS 15607 : 2005 (or European Standard), you need to install Ultrasonic or Shock Wave generator. Also you need to use Centrifugal Separators for better separation. These two equipments are very expensive and cost almost same as all other equipments together. Installing these is not viable for plants having capacity less than 30,000 liters per day, however US Standard ASTM D-6751, can be achieved without these two costly equipments.
Another hazard for small plants is, control of Methanol Storage. If not controlled properly, it may find its way to illicit liquor and deaths of poor people.

for MSDS for Used Cooking Oil.

Used Cooking Oil Collection
  1. Is it worth undertaking such a business?: Used Cooking Oil Collection is a growing business worldwide, especially now in India, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait etc. It helps restaurants to get rid of their waste product, which if drained to sewer, would otherwise put higher treatment load on waste water treatment plant. Collectors can convert Used Cooking Oil into BioDiesel or sell it to manufacturers of BioDiesel. Manufacture of BioDiesel is like purifying used cooking oil. Since BioDiesel is a fuel, it does not have laws applicable to food production. It is governed by rules of petroleum products. (In Asian countries, collection of non-edible rice bran oil is a big business.)

  2. What is the profitable minimum collection?: Since it is collected by sludge collection trucks, minimum collection should be one truck load. Same truck can have multiple trips, and collect more Used Cooking Oil. The volume of collection of Used Cooking Oil also depends on storage capacity, and how quickly it is sold for Manufacture of BioDiesel.

  3. What price to expect per ton of Used Cooking Oil?: The price varies from buyer to buyer and quality of Used Cooking Oil. It has higher selling price if it has low free fatty acid content, and if it is lightly coloured. It is widely exported to Europe. For export to Europe you require ISCC (International Sustainability & Carbon Certification) awarded by SGS Germany for used cooking oils, guaranteeing the traceability and reduction of greenhouse gases. The price range can be US$ 650 to 700 FOB Europe.

  4. Is it necessary to have the used cooking oil clean and dewatered before selling to customers?: Preferably it should be free of moisture and food ingredients. It will have better price.

  5. What are the procedures to have safe production and manpower working place?: The truck operating workers should have training of how to operate the truck. The sucking mechanism should be operated only when end of pipe is dipped in oil. The Used Cooking Oil should not spill while sucking it from storage drums at customers premises. Only one person, who drives the truck is required for operation. Some staff is required at storage depot.

  6. Customers who are willing to buy such product?: Most manufactures of BioDiesel are constantly on look out for new sources of Used Cooking Oil.

  7. What are the quantities expected to be demanded per year?: Most collectors collect around 300 to 400 tons of Used Cooking Oil per month at one location. It can be duplicated at multiple locations.

In India, vegetable oil is used for 2 purposes. 60% of oil is used for cooking of vegetables and lentils. In this case oil is used to extract spices (Tadka) and then raw or cooked vegetable is added to it. Same is the case for lentils. Some oil is mixed with dough to prepare Chapatis. Much of oil used for shallow frying of pancakes (Dosa or Utappa). This oil can not be recovered as used cooking oil. Roughly 10% is used for frying in organized sector. In this case also oil goes with fried items like

  • Wafers (Branded Potato Wafers have a fat content of 25 to 30%, as indicated on its pack).
  • Bhujia (Branded Bhujia has a fat content of 48%, as indicated on its pack)

Hence practically very little used cooking oil is available in India. The eating habits, are different in Western and Eastern world (in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and ASEAN Countries).
The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has included a total polar compound as a criterion for the quality of vegetable oil to be re-used. It is well known that repeated use of the same oil for frying of foods leads to changes in physiochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the edible oil. It is now Mandatory to monitor the quality of vegetable oils during frying. In order to safeguard consumer health, FSSAI has fixed a limit for Total Polar Compounds at 25 percent beyond which the vegetable oil shall not be used.
The most abundant compounds formed possess higher polarity than their parent triglycerides (TG) and low volatility. Polar compounds account for all the nonvolatile alteration compounds formed during frying, compounds originating from oxidation at high temperature (oxidized monomeric TG, dimeric and oligomeric TG) and compounds released from hydrolysis (fatty acids and diacylglycerols). Free Fatty Acid content is almost same as this Used Cooking oil having Total Polar Compounds.
The Used Cooking oil having such high amount of polar compounds, can not be used for production of BioDiesel, using standard Trans-Esterification process. Enzyme based process can be used for this raw material. However, Enzyme based process is tricky and enzymes are expensive and not easily available.
We have been trying to collect Used Cooking oil for last so many years, but could not get much. One big Potato Wafer manufacture, who supplies to Mumbai, rejects about 400 to 500 liters per month. Another large Bakarwadi manufacturer rejects 3,000 to 4,000 liters per month. Most of these large units add fresh oil to top up. Hence the criteria of using it 3 or 4 times does not apply to these units. At this level of supply, we will have to collect Used Cooking Oil, from few thousand of users to run a plant of BioDiesel of viable size. This collected oil, should be used for manufacture of BioDiesel immediately. For that collection rate per day, should be same as production capacity of BioDiesel plant per day. If this oil is stored for longer time, during collection, Free Fatty Acid content of it increases.
However, this is a good news for small scale cottage soap industry (consuming 500 to 1000 liters per day). Cottage soap industry is currently facing acute shortage of vegetable oil, palm stearin and animal tallow. Even if they are offering Rs. 40 to 45 per liter for oil, they are not getting enough vegetable oil. Currently production of soap in India is 800,000 tons per year and large proportion of edible / non-edible oil is used by this sector. Used Cooking Oil with Polar Compounds at 25 percent is boon to cottage soap industry, and curse for BioDiesel Industry.
Many cottage soap manufacturers mix this oil with alum water, with agitation, and then settle it. The food content of oil gets transferred to alum water layer. It is then settled and water layer is drained to effluent disposal system. After this clarification, Top oily layer is used for soap making. Even if there is any moisture in it, there is no problem for soap making (as water is catalyst in soap making). Moisture in oil has to be removed for manufacture of BioDiesel.
Repurpose Used Cooking Oil: The Food Security and Safety Authority of India (FSSAI) has initiated this effort. Currently there is only one partner. To collect oil you have to register as Aggregators and then only you can collect oil. There are a number of aggregators. 26 Biodiesel plants (set up from 2008 till date), are members of this scheme. for Indian Notification for Used Cooking Oil.

Likely chemical analysis of Used Cooking Oil with 25% Polar Compounds

Typical Fatty acid Profile of such oil

for testing procedure to check Polar Compounds in Used Cooking Oil.

Their goal is to dispose off Used Cooking Oil (UCO) in the right way thereby preventing it from going back into the food chain and risking our people's health. It will be compliant with the FSSAI Guidelines which states, the Oil cannot be used for frying beyond 3-4 times and no fresh oil can be added to such fried Oils with the limiting value of 25% TPC, which means this oil can no more be used, by either the user or further down the Food chain and needs to be discarded. FSSAI guidelines also Prevent, the further sale of such edible oil in the marketplace, to any other Dealer of such Oils.
Our associates collect from thousands of restaurants and businesses across the Qatar and Oman their used cooking oil. Our associates collect from restaurants, universities, stadiums, zoos, food processors and makers and even home chefs. The oil our associates collect is refined into environmentally friendly biodiesel.
Most of Acid Oil is imported from Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Import Price Range: US$ 370 to 410.
A lot of used cooking oil is available from sources all over the world, through our associates in UAE. In India UCO is under restricted list and Actual users can register with Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) at Delhi for imports. Used cooking oil falls under appendix 26. Used cooking oil can only be imported by parties having their own BioDiesel Plants.

    Duty Structure in India
  • Export Oriented Units (EOU): If your unit is registered as EOU, you can import used cooking oil without any Customs Duty. However, you can not sell, Biodiesel in Indian Market. You have to export all the Biodiesel manufactured. Freight charges for import and export is the deciding factor for profitability of the project.
  • If you do not have EOU status, there is 35% customs duty on the price of UCO. However, you can sell Biodiesel in Indian market or export.
Biodiesel processing cost is around Rs. 10 per liter. This plus landed cost of oil per liter, is cost of manufacture. Price of BioDiesel in India should be 10% less than that of Diesel as calorific value of BioDiesel is 90% that of Diesel.
    Typical Specifiction for used Cooking Oil
  1. Item Grade S500 / S50
  2. Density (20C) / (kg/m) 820 900
  3. Kinematic viscosity (40C)/(mm/s) 1.9 - 6.0
  4. Flash point (closed cup)/C = 130
  5. Titre C (melting point) /C Actual measure
  6. Sulphur content (mass fraction) / % 0.05-0.005
  7. 10% Carbon residue (mass fraction) % = 0.3
  8. Ash content (mass fraction) = 0.020
  9. Moisture (mass fraction) = 0.1
  10. Mechanical impurity NO
  11. Corrosiveness to copper-copper strip (50C, 3h) / grade = 1
  12. Cetane number = 49
  13. Oxidation stability (110C)/hour = 5.0
  14. Acid value/ (mg KOH/g) = 0.8
  15. Free glycerol content (mass fraction) % = 0.020
  16. Total glycerin content (mass fraction) % = 0.240
  17. 90% recovered at temperature (C) = 360
    Addresses of BioDiesel and Used Cooking Oil Suppliers:
  1. Shams Alam, Sales Executive, Lootah BioFuels, P.O Box : 553 , Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Tel: 971 4 2099 298, M: 971 525639290, shams.alam@lbf.ae, www.lbf.ae

  2. Virendra Somaiya, Director, Global Mercantile Enterprises FZC, POBox 9042, Dubai United Arab Emirates, Tel: 9714 3316183, 97155 8132372, 97150 8662211, Skype: rishisomaiya1, merikininternational@yahoo.com

    Addresses of Used Cooking Oil Supplier:
  1. Mr. C.H.Haksar, Director Opertation, collects upto 200 tons per month. Erigo Trading and Contracting WLL, Al Baker Trading Complex, Building No: A3, 2nd FLoor, Old Airport Road, Po. Box: 201438, DOha, Qatar, Phone: +974-33238800, +974-44121943, Email: haksar@erigo.co

  2. Rajiv Khandelwal, Partner - S.M.International, Owner - G.R.Exports, 22\3 Pandit Motilal Nehru Road, Agra - 282 004, India. http://yourproductfinder.com, Tel/Whatsapp: 91-8126025602, rajivk92@gmail.com, info@yourproductfinder.com, Skype: rajivk92


Palm stearin is the harder fraction of palm oil, containing a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids with a higher melting point of 4850oC. The palmitic acid content ranges from 49 to 68% and oleic content from 24 to 34%. A much harder stearin containing 79% palmitic acid and a tripalmitoylglycerol content of 60% is also available.
Palm stearin has a wide range of composition, physical properties, solid fat content, and iodine values. These variations result in different types of palm stearin. Palm stearin can provide the required solids in blends with unsaturated vegetable oils. It is a natural source of solid fat.
High-Melting Palm Oil Fractions: There are three types of palm stearins, (soft, hard, and very hard) available on the market. Soft palm stearins (melting point of 4046oC) are obtained through single fractionation of palm oil or double fractionation of palm olein. Hard palm stearins (melting point of 5256oC) are obtained through single fractionation of palm oil. The very hard palm stearins (melting point of 5962oC) possess the unique solid fat content (above 80% between the temperature range of 2540oC).

India imports around 400,000 tons of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) per month, from Malaysia and Indonesia. (It also imports 400,000 tons of palmolein per month from Malaysia and Indonesia. CPO is also refined in Malaysia and Indonesia and Palm Stearin is separated from it). In India, Palm Stearin is separated from CPO, and it can be around 40,000 tons per month or 1,200 tons per day. Almost same quantity (1,200 tons per day) can be imported from Malaysia and Indonesia. About 40 BioDiesel plants of 30 tons per day, can be set up based on this locally available raw material and many more based on imported palm stearin.
There are many large Palm Oil Refiners in India, who separate Palm Stearin from Crude Palm Oil. The remaining fraction, Palm Olein is then further refined to sell as Edible Palm Oil. Many of them are situated near ports which can handle bulk edible oil ships. Most of these are around Kandla / Mundra Ports in Gujrath, Kakinada Port in Andhra Pradesh and Haldia Port in West Bengal (near Kolkata). Most of these refiners are large units and can set up large viable BioDiesel plants in their own premises. They can use existing utilities like steam, cooling water, material handling etc. This ensures a continuous supply of raw material in molten form. Since Palm Stearin has very low Free Fatty Acid content, it is the best raw material for manufacture of BioDiesel. Also these port can handle import of Methanol in Ship Loads.
Palm stearin is the solid fraction of palm oil that is produced by partial crystallization at controlled temperature. Palm stearin consists of mostly glyceryl tripalmitate, with most of the rest being glyceryl dipalmitate monooleate. A typical palm stearin might contain almost 50% palmitic acid and 35% oleic acid.


Customs or Import Duty on Industrial monocarboxylic acids, acid oils from refining, industrial fatty alcohols under HS Code 38231900 (from cybex.in) / Customs or Import Duty of PALM ACID OIL under HS Code 38231900


Acid oil, which is a by-product in vegetable oil refining, mainly contains free fatty acids (FFAs) and acylglycerols. Acid oil contains fatty acids (1 to 2%), phospholipids and sterols (8 to 10%), free moisture (5 to 8%). Used cooking oil has pungent odour and dark brown colour. Amount of acid oil produced is 4% of Vegetable oil refined.

    Composition of Acid oil % by weight
  1. Total Fatty Acids 88%
  2. Mineral Acids 1.1%
  3. Moisture 2.2%
  4. Unsaponifiable Matter 8.6%
Most properties of acid oil are similar to the corresponding oil. 70 to 80% yield of Biodiesel can be obtained from acid oil.
    Addresses of Acid Oil Supplier: The oil that is rejected during process of refining, is also available in large quantities. This oil has free fatty acid content of 15 to 20%, and can be used for manufacture of BioDiesel.
  1. Suresh Joshi, M: 94400 55892, joshi.s25@gmail.com, Hyderabad

  2. Dinesh Sales Corporation: 15, Prafulla CHS, A.G.Pawar Lane, Near Voltas B House, Opp. Vardhaman Heights, Byculla (E), Mumbai, 400027. Tel: 91-22-23772376 / 23772377, M: 91-9321354239, WA: 91-9320254239, Fax: 91-22-23772377, Skype: dineshsales, http://www.dineshsales.com/rice_bran_oil.htm

  3. S. N. Gandhi, Sona Enterprise, M: 91-9322530191, 105, Ashish Udyog Bhavan, Opp.SNDT College,Near Liberty Garden, Malad(West), Mumbai, 400064, Tel:91-22-66780471 to 473, Fax: 91-22-66780474, sngandhi@vsnl.com, www.sngandhi.com

  4. Rajesh Sharma, Gryfon Commodities, 101, First Floor, Sushant Tower, Sushant Lok II, Sector 56, Gurgaon, 122 011, India, M: 91-9911558807, rajesh@gryfoncommodities.in

    Address of Animal Tallow Supplier:
  1. Kaumel Kerawalla, 9821600500, kerawallagroup@gmail.com