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Satish Lele
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Lecture at Manila
    THEME
  1. Innovations in Extraction / Processing

  2. Quality & Characteristics of FAME using Jatropha Oil

    Innovations in Extraction / Processing
    OIL EXTRACTION
  1. Dehulling

  2. Seed Preparation

  3. Oil Milling

  4. Solvent Extraction

  5. Solvent Removal

    Dehulling
  1. Fruits are Dried, Cleaned of mud, Stones Removed.

  2. Seeds removed from Dry Fruit cover.

  3. Hulls removed if oil used for soap.

  4. Hulls not removed if used as fuel.

    Seed Preparation
  1. Cracked in Cracking Mill Rolls.

  2. Flaked in Hydraulic Flakers.

  3. Transported to the Extraction Plant.

Oil Milling
Full Pressing to get Oil
or
Pre-pressing to Prepare flakes for Solvent Extraction.

    Solvent Extraction
  1. Extractor with stainless steel Belt and Hexane Spay System.

  2. Regulated speed Belt to change Capacity and Oil yield.

  3. Cake filtered through special wedge wire filters.

    Solvent Removal
  1. Distillation and Recovery of Hexane by Evaporation.

  2. Series of Distillation / Condensation Units.

  3. Final operation under vacuum.

  4. Hexane Recycled for Oil Extraction.

  5. Vent vapors absorbed in oil to recover Hexane Vapors.

    Flash Solvent Removal
  1. Solvent in Cake removed by flashing.

  2. Cake passed through flash tubes and cyclone.

  3. Cake and Hexane recovered.

    REFINING
  1. Degumming

  2. Neutralization

  3. Bleaching

DEGUMMING

Phosphotites in the Oil are hydrated with water and removed by separating in the Centrifugal Separators.

NEUTRALIZATION

It is the treated with Phosphoric Acid and Caustic Soda to remove Free Fatty Acids. The neutralized oil is then washed. Neutralized oil is then dried.

    BLEACHING
  1. Done if Jatropha Oil used for soap Manufacture.

  2. Bleaching earth used to remove impurities.

  3. Oil filtered through pressure leaf filter.

    Quality & Characteristics of FAME using Jatropha Oil
  1. Density g/ml (30C)

  2. Combustion point (C)

  3. Kinematic viscosity constant cSt (30C)

  4. Calorific potential (MJ/kg)

  5. Cetane number

  6. Ester content (%)

  7. Sulphur content (%)

  8. Carbon residue (%)

    Density g/ml (30C)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 0.88

  2. Diesel = 0.85

  3. Norms for ester fuel = >0.8

  4. Density should be comparable to Diesel

    Combustion point (C)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 192

  2. Diesel = 55

  3. Norms for ester fuel > 55

  4. Higher the combustion point, it is safer to handle and transport

    Kinetic viscosity constant cSt (30C)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 4.84

  2. Diesel = 2 to 8

  3. Norms for ester fuel ~ 5

  4. Most important property for flow of fuel through fuel pump and pipes

    Calorific potential (MJ/kg)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 41

  2. Diesel = 45

  3. Norms for ester fuel : Not Defined

  4. It is 87 to 90% of Diesel due to presence of 2 oxygen molecules.

    Cetane number
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 52

  2. Diesel = 47.5

  3. Norms for ester fuel > 48

  4. Combustion quality of fuel in a diesel engine.

    Ester content (%)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester > 99

  2. Diesel = 0

  3. Norms for ester fuel > 99

  4. Shows conversion of oil to ester

    Sulphur content (%)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 0

  2. Diesel < 0.5

  3. Norms for ester fuel < 0.55

  4. Should be as low as possible to reduce pollution

    Carbon residue (%)
  1. Jatropha Curcas Methyl Ester = 0.024

  2. Diesel <0.35

  3. Norms for ester fuel <0.1

  4. Reduces problems of chocking