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Satish Lele

Lamp Oil

Traditional Indian Jatropha Oil Lamp

Jatropha Oil Lantern

When you burn Jatropha oil in a lamp, a fine soot is emitted. Actually this soot is Activated Carbon, which adsorbs poisonous materials from air, cleans the air, and reduces Respiratory problems. In most parts of India, the lighting of lamp at night is a normal practice. Also there is no Electric Power Supply for 4 to 14 hours a day in rural India. In light of this and ever worsening scenario, Traditional Indian Jatropha Oil Lamp and Lantern are the only Hope of Light for Rural India. Though the lumen output efficiency of these is 10 to 20% less than that of Electric Lamps, these are simple and economic. These can spread light in the life of people in rural areas. Use of the Crude Jatropha Oil as fuel for these lamps is more pressing than the use of it for manufacture of BioDiesel, as diesel is easily available. Farmers can grow the jatropha trees on fence and extract oil from seeds locally, using hand operated expellers, and they can use it locally.

Holistic Approach of (ADIWASI) Model
Aboriginal Development Initiative With A Sustainable Income

Many NGOs which work for upliftment of Tribals have found this model very effective. There are two schemes.
Scheme 1 : The NGOs set up Hand Operated Expellers like these, (which do not require electrical power) in their centers. Tribals come to these centers with their bags containing any Oil Bearing Seed like Jatropha, Pongamia, Neem (Non Edible oils for lamps), Mahua (Edible oils for Cooking) and crush the seeds themselves. The tribals carry the extracted oil home for burning these in oil lamps and for cooking. The Tribals leave the seed cake in these center. The NGOs then process the seed cakes of Jatropha, Pongamia, Neem to manufacture Bio Fertilizer in their centers, (Mahua cake is sold as Fish Feed) and sell it later. Tribals collect sufficient seeds, during harvesting period to last for a year, but crush these to get oil as and when required. Oil can last long if stored in air tight 1 liter bottles.
Scheme 2 : The same NGOs buy the oil, extracted as above and sell it to Temples, Hotels, Households for burning them in simple lamps, as a social cause. The NGOs also tie-up with Fuel Additive and Soap Manufacturers for buying oil from them, at a specified rate. The profit from sale of oil is passed on to Tribals as reasonably good price.
There is a two step process to convert seed cake into BioFertilizer. In first step the seed cake is fermented in BioGas Plant shown below.

Seed cake has C:N ratio of 40. Most of the Carbon is converted to BioGas and C:N ratio is reduced to 10. Large protein molecules in cake are broken down to smaller molecules. The cake coming out of BioGas plant is then further processed in a simple, low cost, BioFertilizer plant as shown below. The smaller protein molecules are further broken down in BioFertilizer plant, which can be absorbed by plants as fertilizer.

In these sheds the seed cake is eaten by earthworms (shown below) and bacteria to produce BioFertilizer. Water is sprinkled on the cake heap, which is kept moist at all times. It is turned upside down once a day. It may take 3 to 4 months to complete the process. It provides employment to a number of tribals.

For detailed presentation.

If the people in the village plant Jatropha on 10 acres of fallow land, they can get at least 2 tons of Jatropha seeds (500 liters of Jatropha oil) after 1 year, 5 tons of Jatropha seeds (1,250 liters of Jatropha oil) after 2 years and 10 tons of Jatropha seeds (2,500 liters of Jatropha oil) every year after 3 years. This can satisfy the needs of liquid fuel for Lighting and Cooking. (Jatropha oil, expelled from seeds using hand operated oil expellers, can replace Kerosene or Lamp oil in these two applications and oil can be used in small low RPM Engines shown below). A village can become self-sufficient in its energy needs.

Initially, most of the oil will be used in small engines and for lighting in Traditional Indian Oil Lamps and Lanterns since it will be easier for farmer to process the seeds locally, and he can get better value for his produce locally. It will also be used in big Diesel Engine based Electricity Generating sets, Pump Sets, Heavy Farm Machinery, where the viscosity of oil is not an issue. The requirement for this sector is 20 to 25 million tons per year.

Procedure for Plantation : Start production of Jatropha Saplings 3 months before onset of monsoon. Dig pits on fallow land in 3 m x 2 m formation. Plant these saplings on onset of monsoon. During rainy season, it will grow well with rain water. During hot summer months, carry water in bullock cart tanks, and provide 3 to 5 liters of water to each plant once a week.

Plantation of Jatropha alone is not economically attractive, as there is little income from it for first 2 to 3 years. As Jatropha plant is initially small in height, Castor is intercropped with it in Fallow Land, to get income and oil for first 2 to 3 years. This oil can be used for Lighting homes. (see Castor). If land is good, soy can be grown, as soy oil is edible oil and soy meal is cattle feed and it can provide higher income.

After 3 years it will start yielding fruits and seeds
Extraction of Jatropha oil from Seeds on larger scale
Oil is filtered before use
Oil is used as fuel for Lamps

Raw Jatropha oil can be used as it is in stoves for cooking purposes. The first is pressure stove, which emits oil into burner under air pressure, second is Wick stove, where oil rises to burner by capillary action while third is fed with fuel under gravity force of oil in side bottle.

Pressure Stove and Capillary Stove

Gravity Stove

Oil is used as fuel for Diesel Engine

These Lister type engines are produced in India. One of them is "Fieldmarshal" engine, manufactured by P.M. Diesels Ltd, Aji Industrial Estate, P.O.Box 1003, Rajkot, 360 003, India. Tel : 91-281-2387401-2-3-4 Fax : 91-281-2387406, Web Site : www.fieldmarshal.com.

Production of Bio Gas from Jatropha Seed Cake

Production of Bio Fertilizer from Treated Jatropha Cake
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